Norske uttaleregler (Norwegian pronunciation rules)

Pronounced as a dark /a/ like in the English word star.
A is short before two consonant. Examples: takke /take/ taste /taste/
A is long before one consonant. Examples: mat /ma:t/ bane /ba:ne/
In some loanwords from English a is pronouced like æ /æ/: Examples: bag /bæg/ mac /mæk/
Double aa just appears in some names and is pronouced like å /o/. Example: Aase /o:se/

Pronouced like in English. Spanish Speakers should note that b is always strong (like in English).

Rarely used in Norwegian; it appears only in some words of foreign origin. C is usually replaced by s or k in Norwegian ortography. Examples: cirkus -> sirkus; clown -> klovn.
C is normally prounced /s/ before front vowels (i, e, y, ø, æ).
Examples: cirka, celle, cyan, cøliaki, Cæsar.
C is normally pronouced /k/ in front of back vowels (a, o, u, å) and consonant.
Examples: cricket, carport, cola, Cuba, and cup (although it’s pronouced /køp/)

Is pronouced like English d, although in Eastern Norwegian the pronunciation is more dental (like in for example Spanish).
D disappears in final position in most words. Especially note the pronunciation of the following common words: blod /blu/ bred /bre/ brød /brø/ god /gu/ med /me/ ved /ve/
The d is also silent in declined forms of these words: gode /gu:e/

Some exeptions: bad /ba:d/, grad /gra:d/ Gud /gu:d/ råd /ro:d/
In some words, pronunciation of the final d is optional. The general tendency is that d in these words is pronounced in careful speech and disappears in casual speech. This group includes common words like fredned and sted.

D also often disappears after l. Examples: gjelde /jele/ holde /hole/ kald /kal/ melde /mele/
Some exceptions: alder, aldri, bilde, eldre, foreldre, heldig, veldig (in these words the l is pronunced).

D also often disappears after n. Examples: sende, hånd, strand. 

Pronounced like e in English bed. Example: rett /ret/
In Norwegian, e can also be long – if it’s followed by one consontant: hel /he:l/

Pronounced like in English.

Pronounced like English g in good.
G disappears before j. For example, gjøre is pronounced /jø:re/
G disappears in the ending -ig. For instance, vanskelig is pronounced /vanskeli/
G usually disappears after n: Example: ingen /iŋen/. Some exceptions: bingo, mango.
G is sometimes pronounced /ŋ/ or /j/ before n: vogn /voŋn/ løgn /løjn/

G is normally pronounced /j/ before the front vowels i, y (and occasionally before e and ø): gi /ji/ gynge /jyŋe/ geit /jæit/ Some imported words are exepetions, e.g. gitar /gita:r/

G is pronounced /ʃ/ like in English shower before e in some words of French origin:
gelé, generell, arrangere, rangere…

Pronounced like English h in heaven. (H is normally not silent, like in e.g. Spanish).
H is only silent before v and j and in some names. Examples: hva /va/ hjem /jem/ Christine /kristine/

Pronounced like in English bit and beat. That means, i can be short (before 2 consontants) or long (before 1 consonant). Examples: riste /riste/ kniv /ki:v/

Pronounced like y in English yes. Example: jakt /jakt/

Pronounced like k in English cow. (Note that Norwegian has k in most words where in English has c, e.g. caramel -> karamell)
K becomes a fricative /c/ before front vowels (i, y), ei and j. It’s the same sound as in German ich. Examples: kilo /cilu/ kynisk /cy:nisk/ kjekk /cek/ keitete /cæitete/

Pronounced like in the English word long. Note that l can have different qualities in different dialects across the country.
In standard Eastern Norwegian, l turns into a retroflex sound after r. Karl /kaɭ/

Pronounced like in English.

Pronounced like n in English not, although the standard Eastern Norwegian n is more dental (like in e.g. Spanish).

Before g, n turns into a velar sound, just like in English. Example: ring /riŋ/
Eastern European speakers should note that /ŋ/ is not followed by /g/: synge /syŋe/
Exception: before o: tango, mango etc. Kongo /koŋgu/

In standard Eastern Norwegian, n turns into a retroflex sound after r. barn /baɳ/

Pronounced like long oo in English fool before one consonant. Examples: mor /mu:r/ stol /stu:l/
Exception: Before v, it is pronounced like o in English core. Example: sove /so:ve/
O is pronounced /u/ in the end of words. Examples: netto /netu/ Viggo /vigu/ 
O is normally pronouced like short o in English top before two consonants. Examples: hoppe /hope/ frosk /frosk/

Pronounced like p in English post. Note that p is aspirated in the beginning and end of words (like in English). Thus, e.g. pop is pronounced /phoph/

Is very rare in Norwegian; it is only used in some few loan words.
It is pronounced /kü/ or /kv/ Examples: q-tips /kütips/ quiz /kvis/

Is an alveolar flap like in e.g. Spanish pero. (In Western Norway it is an uvular sound like in French and German).
R disappears before l, n, s and t. Arne /aɳe/ årlig /åɭi/ kors /koʃ/ kort /koʈ/

Pronounced like s in English sing.
S turns into ʃ (like in English shower) in the following combinations: sj, skj, ski, sky, rs.
Examples: sjelden /ʃeldn/ skjold /ʃol/ skilt /ʃilt/ skyte /ʃy:te/ kors /koʃ/

Is pronounced like t in English top, although the standard (Eastern) Norwegian pronunciation is more dental, like in for example Spanish. Note that t is aspirated (that means strong, «breathy») in initial and final position of a word – just like in most other Germanic languages, including English.
In standard Eastern Norwegian, t turns into a retroflex sound after r. Example: ert /æʈ/

Pronounced almost like a ü in German führen or u in French plus.

Pronounced like v i English victory. (The Norwegian v is however somewhat softer, almost like w in water.)

Is very rare in Norwegian. It the few cases it appears, it is pronounced like v.

Pronounced like x in English tax. (X is very rare in Norwegian; it is usually replaced by ks in writing.)

Pronounced almost like a ü in German führen or u in French plus.
The difference between y and u is that y is more front and less rounded (between i and ü).

Pronounced like s in English /song/ Norwegian doesn’t have voiced s.

Pronounced like a in English bad. Example: være /væ:re/

pronounced like ö in German hören, or eu in French peu.
It can be short: bøtte /bøte/ or long: møte /mø:te/

Pronouned /o:/ like in English law. Example: hår /ho:r/




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